Docker Swarm Mode¶
For truly highly-available services with Docker containers, we need an orchestration system. Docker Swarm (as defined at 1.13) is the simplest way to achieve redundancy, such that a single docker host could be turned off, and none of our services will be interrupted.
Add some handy bash auto-completion for docker. Without this, you'll get annoyed that you can't autocomplete
docker stack deploy <blah> -c <blah.yml> commands.
cd /etc/bash_completion.d/ curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/docker/cli/b75596e1e4d5295ac69b9934d1bd8aff691a0de8/contrib/completion/bash/docker
Install some useful bash aliases on each host
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cd ~ curl -O https://raw.githubusercontent.com/funkypenguin/geek-cookbook/master/examples/scripts/gcb-aliases.sh echo 'source ~/gcb-aliases.sh' >> ~/.bash_profile
Release the swarm!¶
Now, to launch a swarm. Pick a target node, and run
docker swarm init
Yeah, that was it. Seriously. Now we have a 1-node swarm.
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[root@ds1 ~]# docker swarm init Swarm initialized: current node (b54vls3wf8xztwfz79nlkivt8) is now a manager. To add a worker to this swarm, run the following command: docker swarm join \ --token SWMTKN-1-2orjbzjzjvm1bbo736xxmxzwaf4rffxwi0tu3zopal4xk4mja0-bsud7xnvhv4cicwi7l6c9s6l0 \ 184.108.40.206:2377 To add a manager to this swarm, run 'docker swarm join-token manager' and follow the instructions. [root@ds1 ~]#
docker node ls to confirm that you have a 1-node swarm:
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[root@ds1 ~]# docker node ls ID HOSTNAME STATUS AVAILABILITY MANAGER STATUS b54vls3wf8xztwfz79nlkivt8 * ds1.funkypenguin.co.nz Ready Active Leader [root@ds1 ~]#
Note that when you run
docker swarm init above, the CLI output gives youe a command to run to join further nodes to my swarm. This command would join the nodes as workers (as opposed to managers). Workers can easily be promoted to managers (and demoted again), but since we know that we want our other two nodes to be managers too, it's simpler just to add them to the swarm as managers immediately.
On the first swarm node, generate the necessary token to join another manager by running
docker swarm join-token manager:
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[root@ds1 ~]# docker swarm join-token manager To add a manager to this swarm, run the following command: docker swarm join \ --token SWMTKN-1-2orjbzjzjvm1bbo736xxmxzwaf4rffxwi0tu3zopal4xk4mja0-cfm24bq2zvfkcwujwlp5zqxta \ 220.127.116.11:2377 [root@ds1 ~]#
Run the command provided on your other nodes to join them to the swarm as managers. After addition of a node, the output of
docker node ls (on either host) should reflect all the nodes:
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[root@ds2 davidy]# docker node ls ID HOSTNAME STATUS AVAILABILITY MANAGER STATUS b54vls3wf8xztwfz79nlkivt8 ds1.funkypenguin.co.nz Ready Active Leader xmw49jt5a1j87a6ihul76gbgy * ds2.funkypenguin.co.nz Ready Active Reachable [root@ds2 davidy]#
Setup automated cleanup¶
Docker swarm doesn't do any cleanup of old images, so as you experiment with various stacks, and as updated containers are released upstream, you'll soon find yourself loosing gigabytes of disk space to old, unused images.
To address this, we'll run the "meltwater/docker-cleanup" container on all of our nodes. The container will clean up unused images after 30 minutes.
First, create docker-cleanup.env (mine is under /var/data/config/docker-cleanup), and exclude container images we know we want to keep:
Then create a docker-compose.yml as follows:
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version: "3" services: docker-cleanup: image: meltwater/docker-cleanup:latest volumes: - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock - /var/lib/docker:/var/lib/docker networks: - internal deploy: mode: global env_file: /var/data/config/docker-cleanup/docker-cleanup.env networks: internal: driver: overlay ipam: config: - subnet: 172.16.0.0/24
Setup unique static subnets for every stack you deploy. This avoids IP/gateway conflicts which can otherwise occur when you're creating/removing stacks a lot. See my list here.
Launch the cleanup stack by running
docker stack deploy docker-cleanup -c <path-to-docker-compose.yml>
Setup automatic updates¶
If your swarm runs for a long time, you might find yourself running older container images, after newer versions have been released. If you're the sort of geek who wants to live on the edge, configure shepherd to auto-update your container images regularly.
Create /var/data/config/shepherd/shepherd.env as follows:
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# Don't auto-update Plex or Emby, I might be watching a movie! (Customize this for the containers you _don't_ want to auto-update) BLACKLIST_SERVICES="plex_plex emby_emby" # Run every 24 hours. Note that SLEEP_TIME appears to be in seconds. SLEEP_TIME=86400
Then create /var/data/config/shepherd/shepherd.yml as follows:
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version: "3" services: shepherd-app: image: mazzolino/shepherd env_file : /var/data/config/shepherd/shepherd.env volumes: - /var/run/docker.sock:/var/run/docker.sock:ro labels: - "traefik.enable=false" deploy: placement: constraints: [node.role == manager]
Launch shepherd by running
docker stack deploy shepherd -c /var/data/config/shepherd/shepherd.yml, and then just forget about it, comfortable in the knowledge that every day, Shepherd will check that your images are the latest available, and if not, will destroy and recreate the container on the latest available image.
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